Cape justice blog logo

Navigating small claims court in California

Discover the world of civil cases, learn about your rights, and explore inspiring stories of resilience and justice in everyday life

Small claims court offers an efficient, abridged process for resolving disputes involving relatively modest amounts of money, specifically any amount up to $12,500. But for many, being in a courtroom, facing a judge, and speaking publicly about an issue that may hit close to home is hard. In fact, it’s scary, daunting, emotional, and nerve-racking. The good news is that there may be an opportunity for you to avoid this last resort.


Here are some essential steps to take before stepping into the courtroom

Know your case

Understand the details of your case inside and out. What are the facts? What evidence do you have to support your claim? What is the chronological timeline of your dispute? Take the time to gather all relevant documents, such as contracts, receipts, emails, photographs, and any other evidence that strengthens your position. Think of your small claim as less of a case and more of a story. If you were to explain to someone how everything unfolded, how would you tell that story clearly? The judge and the jury will appreciate the chronological order of events. If they understand what’s going on, they’re more likely to side in your favor.

Evaluate your claim

Before filing a lawsuit, assess the strength of your claim. Consider the likelihood of success, the amount of damages you’re seeking, and whether pursuing legal action is worth your time and effort. Sometimes, alternative dispute resolution methods like mediation or negotiation may be more effective. This is where budgeting comes into play. If money is no object and what you’re seeking for is justice, then this may not apply to you. However, for the average citizen looking to recuperate their loss in damages, it would be wise to factor in the legal fees in addition to your court fees and filing fees at the end of this process. Once you get a number, ask yourself if this is worth the trouble, the effort, and the time. If the damages aren’t nearly as comparable to the legal fees themselves, perhaps settling is better than taking the case to small claims court.

Research small claims procedures

Familiarize yourself with the rules and procedures of small claims court in California. Each county and each courthouse may have slightly different processes, so be sure to check the specific guidelines for your jurisdiction. Understanding the court’s procedures will help you navigate the process more confidently. If you physically live in CA or live close to the courthouse where you’re filing your case, you will benefit greatly from physically going to the courthouse and asking advice from either a clerk or an administrative assistant. While they are not authorized to give you any legal advice, they can at least direct you to the proper self-help resources needed to start your small claims case filing.

Attempt settlement

In many cases, it’s beneficial to attempt to resolve the dispute before going to court. Consider sending a demand letter outlining your grievance and proposing a settlement. Negotiating a resolution outside of court can save you time and money. While we recommend having an attorney draft a demand letter on your behalf, you have the option of drafting your own demand letter. If you choose this option, it is imperative that you construct the letter professionally in style, format, and diction. You want the person reading this letter to take you and the legal issue seriously. Offer the other party an opportunity to settle with you outside the courtroom.


Navigating small claims court in California


File your claim

If settlement attempts fail, you’ll need to file a claim with the appropriate small claims court. In California, you must file your claim in the county where the defendant resides or where the incident occurred. Make sure to fill out the necessary forms accurately and pay any required filing fees. If English is not your first language, consider hiring an attorney for limited representation. Instead of filling out the forms incorrectly and running the risk of having your paperwork denied by the judge, an attorney who is representing you in a limited scope can assist with this process.

Prepare your evidence

Compile and organize all evidence supporting your case. This may include contracts, invoices, correspondence, witness statements, and photographs. Bring multiple copies of each document to court—one for yourself, one for the defendant, and any additional copies for the judge. For witness statements, make sure to choose witnesses that are trustworthy, reliable, and descriptive. While it is uncommon to attack the character of a witness in small claims court, if your case lacks cold, hard, tangible facts, then the quality of your witness can determine whether you win the case. For contractual disputes that do not have a written contract to reference (i.e., verbal agreements), make sure to include the chain of conversation between the two parties to establish a “meeting of the minds.” What did you both agree to? Were both parties on the same page? Was there a mutual understanding of the terms of the agreement?

Practice your presentation

Plan what you’ll say in court and rehearse your presentation. Be concise and stick to the relevant facts of your case. Anticipate potential questions from the judge and prepare your responses in advance. The courtroom is a formal venue that values courtesy and manners. Disruptive behavior, emotional outbursts, and rude gestures are frowned upon in the courtroom. The judge has the authority to remove you from the courtroom if you do not adhere to the rules and conduct yourself in a hostile manner. Speak slowly and address the judge as “Your Honor” out of respect and formality.

Dress appropriately

Dress in a manner that conveys respect for the court. While small claims court is less formal than other court proceedings, it’s still important to present yourself in a professional manner. Avoid overly casual attire and opt for clean, conservative clothing.

Arrive early

On the day of your court appearance, arrive early to allow time for parking and security screenings. Arriving early also gives you an opportunity to observe proceedings before your case is called, which can help alleviate any nerves.


By following these steps and adequately preparing for your small claims court case in California, you can increase your chances of a favorable outcome. Remember, the goal is to present your case clearly and persuasively while adhering to the court’s procedures and protocols. With thorough preparation and a focused approach, you can navigate the small claims process with confidence.